Опубликован: 12.07.2013 | Доступ: свободный | Студентов: 735 / 20 | Длительность: 37:41:00
Лекция 15:

Reversi

< Лекция 14 || Лекция 15: 12345 || Лекция 16 >

Reversi's Source Code

Reversi is a mammoth program compared to our previous games. It comes in over 300 lines long! (But don't worry, many of these lines are just comments or blank lines to space out the code and make it more readable.) As always, you don't have to type in the program before reading this chapter. And you can also download the program by going to this book's website at the URL, http://inventwithpython.com/chapter15 and following the instructions online.

As with our other programs, we will first create several functions to carry out Reversi-related tasks that the main section of our program will call. Roughly the first 250 lines of code are for these helper functions, and the last 50 lines of code implement the Reversi game itself.

reversi.py

This code can be downloaded from http://inventwithpython.com/reversi.py

If you get errors after typing this code in, compare it to the book's code with the online

diff tool at http://inventwithpython.com/diff or email the author at

al@inventwithpython.com

1. # Reversi 
2.
3.  import random
4.  import sys 
5.
6.  def drawBoard(board):
7.      # This function prints out the board that it was passed. Returns None.
8.      HLINE = '  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+'
9.      VLINE = '  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | ' 
10.
11.      print('    1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8')
12.      print(HLINE)
13.      for y in range(8) :
14.          print(VLINE)
15.          print(y+1, end=' ')
16.           for x in range(8) :
17.               print('| %s' % (board[x] [y]), end=' ')
18.          print('|')
19.          print(VLINE)
20.          print(HLINE)
21. 
22.
23.  def resetBoard(board):
24.      # Blanks out the board it is passed, except for the original starting position.
25.      for x in range(8):
26.           for y in range(8):
27.             board[x] [y] = ' ' 
28.
29.      # Starting pieces:
30.      board[3] [3] = 'X'
31.      board[3] [4] = 'O'
32.      board[4] [3] = 'O'
33.      board[4] [4] = 'X'
34.
35.
36. def getNewBoard():
37.     # Creates a brand new, blank board data structure.
38.     board = []
39.     for i in range(8):
40.         board.append([' '] * 8) 
41.
42.     return board
43.
44.
45. def isValidMove(board, tile, xstart, ystart):
46.     # Returns False if the player's move on space xstart, ystart is invalid.
47.     # If it is a valid move, returns a list of spaces that would become the player's if they made a move here.
48.     if board[xstart][ystart] != ' ' or not isOnBoard (xstart, ystart):
49.         return False 
50.
51.     board[xstart][ystart] = tile # temporarily set the
tile on the board. 
52.
53.     if tile == 'X':
54.         otherTile = 'O'
55.     else:
56.         otherTile = 'X' 
57.
58.     tilesToFlip = []
59.     for xdirection, ydirection in [[0, 1], [1, 1], [1, 0], [1, -1], [0, -1], [-1, -1], [-1, 0], [-1, 1]]:
60.         x, y = xstart, ystart
61.         x += xdirection # first step in the direction
62.         y += ydirection # first step in the direction
63.         if isOnBoard(x, y) and board[x][y] == otherTile:
64.             # There is a piece belonging to the other player next to our piece.
65.             x += xdirection
66.             y += ydirection
67.             if not isOnBoard(x, y):
68.                 continue
69.             while board[x][y] == otherTile:
70.                 x += xdirection
71.                 y += ydirection
72.                 if not isOnBoard(x, y): # break out of while loop, then continue in for loop
73.                     break
74.             if not isOnBoard(x, y):
75.                 continue
76.             if board[x][y] == tile:
77.                 # There are pieces to flip over. Go in the reverse direction until we reach 
  the original space, noting all the tiles along the way.
78.                 while True:
79.                     x -= xdirection
80.                     y -= ydirection
81.                     if x == xstart and y == ystart:
82.                         break
83.                     tilesToFlip.append([x, y]) 
84.
85.     board[xstart][ystart] = ' ' # restore the empty space
86.     if len(tilesToFlip) == 0: # If no tiles were flipped, this is not a valid move.
87.         return False
88.     return tilesToFlip 
89.
90.
91. def isOnBoard(x, y):
92.     # Returns True if the coordinates are located on the board.
93.     return x >= 0 and x <= 7 and y >= 0 and y <=7
94.
95.
96. def getBoardWithValidMoves(board, tile):
97.     # Returns a new board with . marking the valid moves the given player can make.
98.     dupeBoard = getBoardCopy(board) 
99.
100.     for x, y in getValidMoves(dupeBoard, tile):
101.         dupeBoard[x][y] = '.'
102.     return dupeBoard 
103.
104.
105. def getValidMoves(board, tile):
106.     # Returns a list of [x,y] lists of valid moves for the given player on the given board.
107.     validMoves = [] 
108.
109.     for x in range(8):
110.         for y in range(8):
111.             if isValidMove(board, tile, x, y) != False:
112.                 validMoves.append([x, y])
113.     return validMoves 
114.
115.
116. def getScoreOfBoard(board):
117.     # Determine the score by counting the tiles. Returns a dictionary with keys 'X' and 'O'.
118.     xscore = 0
119.     oscore = 0
120.     for x in range(8):
121.         for y in range(8):
122.             if board[x][y] == 'X':
123.                 xscore += 1
124.             if board[x][y] == 'O':
125.                 oscore += 1
126.     return {'X':xscore, 'O':oscore} 
127.
128.
129. def enterPlayerTile():
130.     # Let's the player type which tile they want to be.
131.     # Returns a list with the player's tile as the first item, and the computer's tile as the second.
132.     tile = ''
133.     while not (tile == 'X' or tile == 'O'):
134.         print('Do you want to be X or O?')
135.         tile = input().upper() 136.
137.     # the first element in the tuple is the player's tile, the second is the computer's tile.
138.     if tile == 'X':
139.         return ['X', 'O']
140.     else:
141.         return ['O', 'X'] 
142.
143.
144. def whoGoesFirst():
145.     # Randomly choose the player who goes first.
146.     if random.randint(0, 1) == 0:
147.         return 'computer'
148.     else:
149.         return 'player' 
150.
151.
152. def playAgain():
153.     # This function returns True if the player wants to play again, otherwise it returns False.
154.     print('Do you want to play again? (yes or no)')
155.     return input().lower().startswith('y') 
156.
157.
158. def makeMove(board, tile, xstart, ystart):
159.     # Place the tile on the board at xstart, ystart, and flip any of the opponent's pieces.
160.     # Returns False if this is an invalid move, True if it is valid.
161.     tilesToFlip = isValidMove(board, tile, xstart, ystart) 
162.
163.     if tilesToFlip == False:
164.         return False 
165.
166.     board[xstart][ystart] = tile
167.     for x, y in tilesToFlip:
168.         board[x][y] = tile
169.     return True 
170.
171.
172. def getBoardCopy(board):
173.     # Make a duplicate of the board list and return the duplicate.
174.     dupeBoard = getNewBoard() 
175.
176.     for x in range(8):
177.         for y in range(8):
178.             dupeBoard[x][y] = board[x][y]
179.
180.     return dupeBoard
181.
182.
183. def isOnCorner(x, y):
184.     # Returns True if the position is in one of the four corners.
185.     return (x == 0 and y == 0) or (x == 7 and y == 0) or (x == 0 and y == 7) or (x == 7 and y == 7)
186. 
187.
188. def getPlayerMove(board, playerTile):
189.     # Let the player type in their move.
190.     # Returns the move as [x, y] (or returns the strings 'hints' or 'quit')
191.     DIGITS1TO8 = '1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8'.split()
192.     while True:
193.         print('Enter your move, or type quit to end the game, or hints to turn off/on hints.')
194.         move = input().lower()
195.         if move == 'quit':
196.             return 'quit'
197.         if move == 'hints':
198.             return 'hints' 
199.
200.         if len(move) == 2 and move[0] in DIGITS1TO8 and move[1] in DIGITS1TO8:
201.             x = int(move[0]) - 1
202.             y = int(move[1]) - 1
203.             if isValidMove(board, playerTile, x, y) == False:
204.                 continue
205.             else:
206.                 break
207.         else:
208.             print('That is not a valid move. Type the x digit (1-8), then the y digit (1-8).')
209.             print('For example, 81 will be the top-right corner.')
210.
211.     return [x, y]
212.
213.
214. def getComputerMove(board, computerTile):
215.     # Given a board and the computer's tile, determine where to
216.     # move and return that move as a [x, y] list.
217.     possibleMoves = getValidMoves(board, computerTile) 
218.
219.     # randomize the order of the possible moves
220.     random.shuffle(possibleMoves) 
221.
222.     # always go for a corner if available.
223.     for x, y in possibleMoves:
224.         if isOnCorner(x, y):
225.             return [x, y] 
226.
227.     # Go through all the possible moves and remember the best scoring move
228.     bestScore = -1
229.     for x, y in possibleMoves:
230.         dupeBoard = getBoardCopy(board)
231.         makeMove(dupeBoard, computerTile, x, y)
232.         score = getScoreOfBoard(dupeBoard)[computerTile]
233.         if score > bestScore:
234.             bestMove = [x, y]
235.             bestScore = score
236.     return bestMove 
237.
238.
239. def showPoints(playerTile, computerTile):
240.     # Prints out the current score.
241.     scores = getScoreOfBoard(mainBoard)
242.     print('You have %s points. The computer has %s points.' % (scores[playerTile], scores[computerTile]))
243.
244.
245.
246. print('Welcome to Reversi!')
247.
248. while True:
249.     # Reset the board and game.
250.     mainBoard = getNewBoard()
251.     resetBoard(mainBoard)
252.     playerTile, computerTile = enterPlayerTile()
253.     showHints = False
254.     turn = whoGoesFirst()
255.     print('The ' + turn + ' will go first.') 256.
257.     while True:
258.         if turn == 'player':
259.             # Player's turn.
260.             if showHints:
261.                 validMovesBoard = getBoardWithValidMoves (mainBoard, playerTile)
262.                 drawBoard(validMovesBoard)
263.             else:
264.                 drawBoard(mainBoard)
265.             showPoints(playerTile, computerTile)
266.             move = getPlayerMove(mainBoard, playerTile)
267.             if move == 'quit':
268.                 print('Thanks for playing!')
269.                 sys.exit() # terminate the program
270.             elif move == 'hints':
271.                 showHints = not showHints
272.                 continue
273.             else:
274.                 makeMove(mainBoard, playerTile, move[0],move[1]) 
275.
276.               if getValidMoves(mainBoard, computerTile) == [] :
277.                   break
278.               else:
279.                   turn = 'computer' 
280.
281.           else:
282.               # Computer's turn.
283.               drawBoard(mainBoard)
284.               showPoints(playerTile, computerTile)
285.               input('Press Enter to see the computer\'s move.')
286.               x, y = getComputerMove(mainBoard, computerTile)
287.               makeMove(mainBoard, computerTile, x, y) 
288.
289.               if getValidMoves(mainBoard, playerTile) == []:
290.                   break
291.               else:
292.                   turn = 'player' 
293.
294.      # Display the final score.
295.      drawBoard(mainBoard)
296.      scores = getScoreOfBoard(mainBoard)
297.      print('X scored %s points. O scored %s points.' % (scores['X'] , scores ['O']))
298.      if scores[playerTile] > scores[computerTile]:
299.          print('You beat the computer by %s points! Congratulations!' % (scores[playerTile] - scores
[computerTile]))
300.      elif scores[playerTile] < scores[computerTile]:
301.          print('You lost. The computer beat you by %s points.' % (scores[computerTile] - scores[playerTile]))
302.      else:
303.          print('The game was a tie!') 
304.
305.     if not playAgain() : 
306.                       break
< Лекция 14 || Лекция 15: 12345 || Лекция 16 >