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Опубликован: 18.11.2015 | Уровень: для всех | Доступ: платный
Лекция 11:

Parts and stages of a lesson

DAY TO DAY LESSON PLANNING.

You also need a plan for each day. Concentrate on having clear aims for every lesson. Write them at the top of your lesson notes. Write some of them on the board, introduce them at the beginning of the lesson. Aims for a lesson can be all sorts of things:

There are language aims-

To introduce the present perfect used with ‘for’ and ‘since’

To revise number recognition to 100

But there are other aims too:

To improve speed reading of short texts

(skill)

To investigate how and when we use dictionaries

(study skill)

To work together in different pairs

(class atmosphere)

Sometimes there are a teacher’s aims that are NOT shared with the class!

To give Aisha more chance to answer questions

(individual student)

To improve timing and give homework clearly.

(teacher’s personal development)

There is very rarely one aim for a lesson, there are usually lots of different ones.

And remember, if something unexpected comes up, you may have to change your aim. A lesson plan is not set in stone, it should be flexible.

SELF-CHECK 4:2 2

Have a look at these aims for lessons and sort them into the right columns:

A couple have been done for you.

Language Skills Study skills Classroom dynamics Student/teacher development
A C

A) To introduce times of the day and greetings.

B) Extensive reading of document for gist

C) To introduce vocabulary notebooks and how to use them

D) To work individually with Group 3 on handwriting problems

E) To test new seating arrangement for group work

F) To work on giving clearer instructions with gestures.

G) To plan a first draft using bullet point system

H) To revise expressions of intention using want to and going to

I) To introduce web research for language study

J) To encourage boy/girl pairwork in role plays

COMMENT 4:2 2

A and H are language aims

B and G are skills aims

C and I are study skills aims

E and G are about classroom dynamics

D and F are about development.

They are all valid lesson aims.

SELF-CHECK 4:2 3

Here are three teachers talking about what they are going to do in their lessons today.

For each one, decide why they are doing this. What are the teacher’s aims?

TEACHER 1

I’ve been talking and talking, explaining grammar too much in lessons recently. Today we are starting a new unit on Health and Fitness, so I have asked them to bring in information about what they ate for dinner last night. I’ve got some food flashcards ready and we’re going to look at the reading in the book about healthy eating and work in groups for a large part of the lesson. I’ll also introduce information at the end about a poster project I want them to do.

TEACHER 2

I’m tired today so I’m going to get them to draw some pictures of animals and copy some information about them from this website I found. That should take them an hour but if they finish early I’ll get them to learn any vocabulary they have forgotten.

TEACHER 3

I’ve got up to page 47 and we finished the past tense last lesson so I’m going to teach the present perfect tense today by doing exercises 3, 4 and 5. Then we can copy the timeline in our books and do the pairwork on page 48. For writing practice they can do exercise 6.

COMMENT 4:2 3

TEACHER 1

This teacher has been thinking about class dynamics and development and wants a change. She aims to encourage interaction/discussion before and during the reading and is planning a longer project so that they can work together on some writing. It is all very practical and personal too and she has prepared a range of vocabulary cards. This teacher has planned well.

TEACHER 2

Let’s hope there are not too many lessons like this! This is a time filling lesson and does not have a clear aim or teach anything. The writing is only copying and the drawing is not related to English. The teacher has not planned to focus on study skills for the vocabulary learning, so probably the students will just sit and try to learn the words off by heart, which could be difficult. There is no introduction or ending planned or mention of a sequence of lessons.

TEACHER 3

This teacher is practical and organised but relies on the book too much. There is a clear language aim relating to grammar, and some different skills work but the teacher is not thinking about much else. This lesson is all related to doing things but not WHY we are doing them. There is no link with the past lesson. The teacher said three sentences and after each of them we could ask her ‘WHY?’ because she has not said why.

PARTS AND STAGES OF A LESSON

Teaching language successfully to ESOL students is a complex process requiring careful planning. The main purpose of your lesson is to teach 'something' to your learners in such a way that by the end of the lesson they will have demonstrated a skill or knowledge they did not have at the beginning of the lesson. It is important to use a range of methods, materials and activities to ensure the learning outcomes are fully achieved

To help organise our time and the process of teaching, we need to think about including separate stages of the lesson.

  1. Introduction/Warm up/Revision
  2. Presentation
  3. Practice and Production
  4. Plenary or whole class review
1) INTRODUCTION/WARM UP/REVISION

To understand language use, language must be introduced in context, or in real-life situations. At the start of a lesson, it is useful to 'set the scene' by encouraging the class to think about a particular topic, or function; or by brainstorming ideas onto the whiteboard, or by revising material from a previous lesson which will be useful for the lesson now. Some techniques we have looked at include:

Open questions, pre-reading and pre-listening questions, the use of picture stimulus, spidergrams, including input from the students to find out what they know, the use of key words on the board and so on. This gets students thinking along the right lines, focussing their attention ready for new material to be presented, controlled by the teacher to set them on the right track.

Remember, you do not always have to start a lesson cold. A good teacher (like teacher 1 above) has got the students ready even BEFORE they come to a lesson on a new topic by giving them a pre-study homework task. The benefits of this are many, but the advantage is most clearly seen when there is a big gap between lessons - for example if students come only once a week. Tasks and preparation mean they keep thinking about English from one week to the next.

2) PRESENTATION

At some point in the lesson you need to make sure that you clearly present language that you want the students to focus on. This will be new language that they need to have explained to them with your help and guidance. Though we teach ‘communicatively’ that does not mean that we leave the students in confusion.

New material can be presented straight away with clear explanations and examples showing what the language means and how it is used. The target language is presented via a controlled model, such as a short written text, a dialogue or a grammatical structure, so that students can see or hear the new language as well as understanding its meaning and use. This provides a model for learners to copy and then use to produce their own language.

If you use a ‘real’ text to introduce language then the presentation is slightly different. This is the idea of ‘focussing’. If you do this you present a text to your students for comprehension and discussion and then ask them to focus on certain aspects of the language - ‘relationship between the past tense and the past perfect’ or ‘how to express comparison’. It is slightly different as the language presentation may come further on in the lesson, but it is still there and should still be a teacher-led section of the lesson.

You can use group and pair work ‘discovery’ techniques - where you give students the information and they work out the rules. After they have tried you can ‘clarify’ the rules for them and this will be your presentation stage.

Harmer has good examples of the different ways this stage can be managed.

3) PRACTICE AND PRODUCTION

Practice consolidates the knowledge learners have hopefully gained from the presentation stage of the lesson, providing them with the opportunity to use the language meaningfully and successfully. The teacher's role here is to manage a range of activities which allow learners to try out the new language through pairwork and groupwork. This can take the form of guided dialogues, role plays, information gap activities and problem solving. The practice can be for oral, reading or writing skills, with texts and other stimuli introduced which include the target language which can then be practised in a range of activity types - true/false comprehension questions, completion exercises, summarising, noting pros and cons for discussion and written work etc. Short written pieces using a certain style can be done and monitored carefully by the teacher - students can begin to experiment in oral practice trying out the language they have focussed on. Teachers should use a range of practice activities. This will help prevent lessons becoming predictable and it also builds in the element of repetition but in an interesting way. The teacher initiates, manages and encourages at this stage, intervening whenever necessary and checking for errors. These can be focussed on later in the lesson.

As the lesson moves away from teacher guidance to semi-free or free language production by the student, we think of it in terms of language production. This production activity may take the form of a group solution to a problem [oral] or a written task, or the use of a particular grammatical item [ie story in past tense or descriptions of a person using adjectives/adverbs]. The final output by the student should meet the aims of the lesson with the teacher monitoring for errors but much more an observer than anything else at this stage. Here, the students should be producing the target language with minimal, if any, teacher interference.

Always remember that you will not instantly have perfect production of language by your students. A new item, especially an important one such as ‘past tense forms’ or ‘personal pronouns’ needs a bit of thinking about and several weeks of ‘revisiting’ by the students before they are secure. What’s more they will progess at different rates. Perfect production does not magically occur in every student at the same time! Your job is to make sure that they have a chance to experiment and learn through making mistakes. If you only ever do controlled practice, students do not have the chance to use what they know alongside what they are learning to use.

Practice and production should be seen as leading from one to the other. It is no use springing a production task on students that you have not prepared them for through practice. For example, talking about what kind of movies you like does not lead immediately to students writing reviews of films. That is a different skill. ‘Directing someone around your school’ in controlled practice does not lead straight to ‘writing directions to your house’ as the vocabulary is completely different. You cannot give students a biography of a famous dead person to study and then expect them to write their own biography as the tenses are different for people still living.

This is a common mistake among novice teachers and one you should watch out for as you begin teaching.

4) PLENARY OR WHOLE CLASS REVIEW

It is extemely important that you end your class cleanly and with a refocussing on what the class have been doing.

Some teachers do this very formally by talking with the class about ‘what we have been learning today’ or referring back to lesson aims written on the white board. The students can see how the lesson has progressed and how the activities are all linked.

Some teachers have a short question and answer session in which the students give their opinion on what they think they have learnt.

In other lessons the whole class review may be longer. For example, if your students have been writing letters in pairs or doing a discussion task in groups then you may wish them to present what they have done to the class.

You also need this stage in the lesson to give your students a homework task while they are clearly focussed on you!

SELF-CHECK 4:2 4

  1. How does the role of the teacher change through an ESOL lesson as described above?
  2. Match the parts of the lesson described to the four stages below.

    "I asked the class about the weather today, and we wrote some vocabulary on the board. Next, I gave out worksheets with pictures of the weather and days of the week, and as I played a listening of this week's weather forecast, students listened and matched the picture to the correct day. This was followed by pairwork, with an information gap activity in which students completed a weather map of Britain. The final activity was a written description of the weather in each season in their own country. Some of them read out what they had written to the class. For homework I gave them a research task on the climate in a range of different cities around the world so that we can prepare a class display next lesson."

Introduction

Presentation

Practice

Production

Plenary

Can you write ‘aims’ for this lesson?

Вадим Бондарь
Вадим Бондарь
Как найти и выбрать тьютора?
Ирина Суханова
Ирина Суханова
здравствуйте! я прохожу курс учитель англ. языка. я отправила тест №1, как долго его будут проверять.
Павел Плахотник
Павел Плахотник
Украина, Днепропетровск
Анатолий Федоров
Анатолий Федоров
Россия, Москва, Московский государственный университет им. М. В. Ломоносова, 1989