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Опубликован: 18.11.2015 | Уровень: для всех | Доступ: платный
Лекция 8:

Visual Aids



There are different types of realia - the word means ‘real things’ - the things normally found in the classroom such as pens pencils and notebooks, windows and tables, and those that you bring in for simulation of some sort of real world activity.


The advantage of using objects normally found around the classroom is that they are already familiar to the students, and the practice you can get out of them is extensive. Place things to practise prepositions - in, on, under and behind. Teach comparatives using them asking which is bigger, smaller, more expensive and so on. Use them to build dialogues asking for things and buying and selling things. But don't over-use items of stationery! Remember they are not usually found anywhere else!

REAL PROPS brought into the classroom are not only useful in this way, but provide an extra, interesting stimulus. Set scenes by using any props you can get hold of:- hats to change characters, flags to show nationalities, toy phones, toy vehicles, dolls, tea-sets etc can be very useful.

Real objects are fascinating. Bring in a few objects that have special meaning to you and get your students to guess something about you. They can then bring in something that is special to them and talk about it. Some objects like fruit and vegetables and food packets can easily be brought to lessons. You can also bring toy cars (to compare price and speed) or clothes, or toy animals. Let students touch as well as see - (even a class of businessmen will love the toy cars). Real signs and notices and brochures are more fun than the course book examples. Put objects in a bag or box when you first bring them to class and get students to put their hand in the bag and guess the object without seeing it.


If you are introducing or practising use of - has, has got, wears, has got on etc, what better props than your students? Personal questions (usually the first thing students learn) are best practised with the students themselves: ‘I'm Greek, I'm from Crete’ and so on. Students love to learn more about each other. As the teacher in an EFL situation you should be able to mime and not be afraid to do so. Throw yourself into it and you'll enjoy it as much as your students will!


How could you use the following to help you teach English? Be as imaginative as you can.

Here’s an example:

A rubber snake

To teach third person ‘s’ - wave it every time someone forgets.

In a lesson on likes and dislikes as people’s reactions will be different

In a lesson on how things feel when you touch them (smooth etc) use in conjunction with a bag of other things.

As a stimulus for starting a story

In a ‘Where is it?’ activity for prepositions.

In a lesson on daily habits - ‘I get up at…. I eat my mouse….’

In a lesson on pets or animal habitats or the environment and so on.

Now you try!

The board rubber

A box of chocolates

An umbrell

3 large silk or cotton scarves

4 toy cars

Your sister


One of the most commonly available and inexpensive visual aids is the chalkboard, or more often now, the whiteboard. All you have to do here is to make sure you have chalk or marker pens and a cleaning cloth.

Always make sure your board work is clear. Where possible prepare beforehand and don't stand writing/drawing on the board for a long time during the lesson. Practise writing without turning your back on the class, and moving your feet rather than reaching out your hand to keep writing level!


At the end of a 45 minute lesson a board may have one or a number of these features:

The board is blank.

It is covered in isolated words and structures.

There is a half finished picture on one side.

It is full from top to bottom.

Everything is in the same colour

There are spelling mistakes or words missed out.

How do you think these things affect the students’ learning? Make a few notes here.

The white board may be the most commonly used teaching aid, but it is also potentially the most dangerous!

Teachers are not always careful about how they write on it -

But learners tend to copy down everything that the teacher writes.

Learners are not very careful about how they write -

But their notebooks are used for revision.

COMMENT on 3:4 2

The board is blank.

Didn't the learners record anything new today? Was it all in the course book? A blank board every lesson is a sign that the teacher is not exploiting the vocabulary very well or encouraging learners to keep notes. These lessons are probably a bit boring……

Perhaps the teacher thought the learners could take notes as she was speaking? That is relying too much on auditory learning. It is very important to write down important words and phrases to ensure that the learners have an accurately spelt record and a chance to see the word. As we mentioned in Unit 2 you can also mark word stress and pronunciation on the white board.

The board is covered in isolated words and structures, squiggles or half-finished pictures.

A board like this is (obviously!) a sign of disorganisation in the way that material is presented and practised. The teacher may also be going too fast for the learners. See the diagram at the end of this module.

It is full from top to bottom.

Make it a habit to clean the part of the board you are using when you are sure that everyone has recorded what you want. Of course, give learners enough time to write but don't leave everything up there; as the lesson wears on the board will become more and more difficult for the learners to read.

Also, are you sure that everything on the board is really necessary? The teacher has spent all this time writing so has had her back to the learners for a long time in this lesson. These learners will rely on the written word and not listen to the teacher.

Everything is in the same colour

A simple point. A good colour scheme can help highlight, but check for colour-blind students first. Try to make it consistent, perhaps using red for highlighting stress in words or to show the way tense forms change in questions:

He plays tennis.

Does he play tennis?

He doesn't play tennis.

Always think about how you can highlight the meaning you are teaching by using colours.

There are spelling mistakes or words missed out.

It is quite possible that there are! People often expect that English teachers will be able to spell perfectly. However, pressure of time and nerves in lessons makes spelling less accurate. Make it a habit to 'reed what you have just wrutten on the bored'

If you find an easy mistake, encourage the learners to find it too, it will make them think more carefully about copying from the board without thinking!

This really needs no comment. Just make sure you check from time to time that your writing is large enough and legible for all learners. Remember, in a large class, the most reluctant learners head for the back, so they may not bother to tell you if they can't read what you have written!

A chalkboard, though old fashioned, is a useful tool, especially if it has a roller or can flip over. This means you can show information gradually without writing during the lesson. Write your homework up. Write the answers to an exercise, or draw a picture, then roll or flip the board. The board may have a useful edge around which you can stick cue cards, while the language is still in the middle:

Look at this three- part board plan:

The centre of the board may keep changing and the vocabulary list gets longer, but the left hand side of the board stays the same through the lesson.

It is a useful discipline for you to divide your board in this way.

If you can, allow students to write on the board from time to time. That way the board is for everyone.


Check your board work in the lesson from the back of the classroom and try to see what you have written. It can be a shock!




Beware! Many wall charts which look beautiful in the shop are virtually useless and end up spending most of their life rolled up in a cupboard. Shiny ones especially seem to fall off classroom walls worldwide! Flexibility is what is needed in a visual aid. If you can prepare charts which will be helpful for various levels, to demonstrate a variety of points, and will be helpful in different teaching situations, then they will be worth the hours of preparation time which they require. This is rare and another aid will probably be a better option. If you want your walls to look bright and cheery then cover them with students’ work!

Вадим Бондарь
Вадим Бондарь
Как найти и выбрать тьютора?
Ирина Суханова
Ирина Суханова
здравствуйте! я прохожу курс учитель англ. языка. я отправила тест №1, как долго его будут проверять.
Павел Плахотник
Павел Плахотник
Украина, Днепропетровск
Анатолий Федоров
Анатолий Федоров
Россия, Москва, Московский государственный университет им. М. В. Ломоносова, 1989