Опубликован: 06.08.2013 | Доступ: свободный | Студентов: 783 / 11 | Длительность: 27:51:00
Лекция 5:


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Epoch Time

Also in order to "time out", the current time (returned by time.time()) minus four seconds (because 4 is stored in TIMEOUT) must be greater than the last time clicked a button (stored in lastClickTime). The reason why time.time() - TIMEOUT > lastClickTime works has to do with how epoch time works. Epoch time (also called Unix epoch time) is the number of seconds it has been since January 1st , 1970. This date is called the Unix epoch.

For example, when I run time.time() from the interactive shell (don’t forget to import the time module first), it looks like this:

>>> import time
>>> time.time()

What this number means is that the moment the time.time() function was called was a little over 1,320,460,242 seconds since midnight of January 1st , 1970. (This translates to November 4 th, 2011 at 7:30:42pm. You can learn how to convert from Unix epoch time to regular English time at http://invpy.com/epochtime)

If I call time.time() from the interactive shell a few seconds later, it might look like this:

>>> time.time()

1320460261.315 seconds after midnight of the Unix epoch is November 4th , 2011 at 7:31:01pm (Actually, it’s 7:31 and 0.315 seconds if you want to be precise).

Dealing with time would be difficult if we had to deal with strings. It’s hard to tell that 19 seconds have passed if we only had the string values '7:30:42 PM' and '7:31:01 PM' to compare. But with epoch time, it’s just a matter of subtracting the integers 1320460261.315 - 1320460242.118, which evaluates to 19.197000026702881. This value is the number of seconds between those two times (The extra 0.000026702881 comes from very small rounding errors that happen when you do math with floating point numbers. They only happen sometimes and are usually too tiny to matter. You can learn more about floating point rounding errors at http://invpy.com/roundingerrors).

Going back to line 121, if time.time() - TIMEOUT > lastClickTime evaluates to True, then it has been longer than 4 seconds since time.time() was called and stored in lastClickTime. If it evaluates to False, then it has been less than 4 seconds.

122.                 # pushed the incorrect button, or has timed out
123.                 gameOverAnimation()
124.                 # reset the variables for a new game:
125.                 pattern = []
126.                 currentStep = 0
127.                 waitingForInput = False
128.                 score = 0
129.                 pygame.time.wait(1000)
130.                 changeBackgroundAnimation()

If either the player clicked on the wrong button or has timed out, the program should play the "game over" animation and then reset the variables for a new game. This involves setting the pattern list to a blank list, currentStep to 0, waitingForInput to False, and then score to 0. A small pause and a new background color will be set to indicate to the player the start of a new game, which will begin on the next iteration of the game loop.

Drawing the Board to the Screen

132.         pygame.display.update()
133.         FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)

Just like the other game programs, the last thing done in the game loop is drawing the display Surface object to the screen and calling the tick() method.

Same Old terminate() Function

136. def terminate():
137.     pygame.quit()
138.     sys.exit()
141. def checkForQuit():
142.     for event in pygame.event.get(QUIT): # get all the QUIT events
143.         terminate() # terminate if any QUIT events are present
144.     for event in pygame.event.get(KEYUP): # get all the KEYUP events
145.         if event.key == K_ESCAPE:
146.             terminate() # terminate if the KEYUP event was for the Esc key
147.         pygame.event.post(event) # put the other KEYUP event objects back

The terminate() and checkForQuit() functions were used and explained in the Sliding Puzzle chapter, so we will skip describing them again.

Reusing The Constant Variables

150. def flashButtonAnimation(color, animationSpeed=50):
151.     if color == YELLOW:
152.         sound = BEEP1
153.         flashColor = BRIGHTYELLOW
154.         rectangle = YELLOWRECT
155.     elif color == BLUE:
156.         sound = BEEP2
157.         flashColor = BRIGHTBLUE
158.         rectangle = BLUERECT
159.     elif color == RED:
160.         sound = BEEP3
161.         flashColor = BRIGHTRED
162.         rectangle = REDRECT
163.     elif color == GREEN:
164.         sound = BEEP4
165.         flashColor = BRIGHTGREEN
166.         rectangle = GREENRECT

Depending on which Color value is passed as an argument for the color parameter, the sound, color of the bright flash, and rectangular area of the flash will be different. Line 151 to 166 sets three local variables differently depending on the value in the color parameter: sound, flashColor and rectangle.

Animating the Button Flash

168.     origSurf = DISPLAYSURF.copy()
169.     flashSurf = pygame.Surface((BUTTONSIZE, BUTTONSIZE))
170.     flashSurf = flashSurf.convert_alpha()
171.     r, g, b = flashColor
172.     sound.play()

The process of animating the button flash is simple: On each frame of the animation, the normal board is drawn and then on top of that, the bright color version of the button that is flashing is drawn over the button. The alpha value of the bright color starts off at 0 for the first frame of animation, but then on each frame after the alpha value is slowly increased until it is fully opaque and the bright color version completely paints over the normal button color. This will make it look like the button is slowly brightening up.

The brightening up is the first half of the animation. The second half is the button dimming. This is done with the same code, except that instead of the alpha value increasing for each frame, it will be decreasing. As the alpha value gets lower and lower, the bright color painted on top will become more and more invisible, until only the original board with the dull colors is visible.

To do this in code, line 168 creates a copy of the display Surface object and stores it in origSurf. Line 169 creates a new Surface object the size of a single button and stores it in flashSurf. The convert_alpha() method is called on flashSurf so that the Surface object can have transparent colors drawn on it (otherwise, the alpha value in the Color objects we use will be ignored and automatically assumed to be 255). In your own game programs, if you are having trouble getting color transparency to work, make sure that you have called the convert_alpha() method on any Surface objects that have transparent colors painted on them.

Line 171 creates individual local variables named r, g, and b to store the individual RGB values of the tuple stored in flashColor. This is just some syntactic sugar that makes the rest of the code in this function easier to read. Before we begin animating the button flash, line 172 will play the sound effect for that button. The program execution keeps going after the sound effect has started to play, so the sound will be playing during the button flash animation.

173.     for start, end, step in ((0, 255, 1), (255, 0, -1)): # animation loop
174.         for alpha in range(start, end, animationSpeed * step):
175.             checkForQuit()
176.             DISPLAYSURF.blit(origSurf, (0, 0))
177.             flashSurf.fill((r, g, b, alpha))
178.             DISPLAYSURF.blit(flashSurf, rectangle.topleft)
179.             pygame.display.update()
180.             FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)
181.     DISPLAYSURF.blit(origSurf, (0, 0))

Remember that to do the animation, we want to first draw the flashSurf with color that has increasing alpha values from 0 to 255 to do the brightening part of the animation. Then to do the dimming, we want the alpha value to go from 255 to 0. We could do that with code like this:

for alpha in range(0, 255, animationSpeed): # brightening
  DISPLAYSURF.blit(origSurf, (0, 0))
  flashSurf.fill((r, g, b, alpha))
  DISPLAYSURF.blit(flashSurf, rectangle.topleft)
for alpha in range(255, 0, -animationSpeed): # dimming
  DISPLAYSURF.blit(origSurf, (0, 0))
  flashSurf.fill((r, g, b, alpha))
  DISPLAYSURF.blit(flashSurf, rectangle.topleft)

But notice that the code inside the for loops handles drawing the frame and are identical to each other. If we wrote the code like the above, then the first for loop would handle the brightening part of the animation (where the alpha value goes from 0 to 255) and the second for loop would handle the dimming part of the animation (where the alpha values goes from 255 to 0). Note that for the second for loop, the third argument to the range() call is a negative number.

Whenever we have identical code like this, we can probably shorten our code so we don’t have to repeat it. This is what we do with the for loop on line 173, which supplies different values for the range() call on line 174:

173.     for start, end, step in ((0, 255, 1), (255, 0, -1)): # animation loop
174.         for alpha in range(start, end, animationSpeed * step):

On the first iteration of line 173’s for loop, start is set to 0, end is set to 255, and step is set to 1. This way, when the for loop on line 174 is executed, it is calling range(0, 255, animationSpeed) (Note that animationSpeed * 1 is the same as animationSpeed. Multiplying a number by 1 gives us the same number).

Line 174’s for loop then executes and performs the brightening animation.

On the second iteration of line 173’s for loop (there are always two and only two iterations of this inner for loop), start is set to 255, end is set to 0, and step is set to -1. When the line 174’s for loop is executed, it is calling range(255, 0,-animationSpeed) (Note that animationSpeed* -1 evaluates to -animationSpeed, since multiplying any number by -1 returns the negative form of that same number.)

This way, we don’t have to have two separate for loops and repeat all the code that is inside of them. Here’s the code again that is inside line 174’s for loop:

175.             checkForQuit()
176.             DISPLAYSURF.blit(origSurf, (0, 0))
177.             flashSurf.fill((r, g, b, alpha))
178.             DISPLAYSURF.blit(flashSurf, rectangle.topleft)
179.             pygame.display.update()
180.             FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)
181.     DISPLAYSURF.blit(origSurf, (0, 0))

We check for any QUIT events (in case the user tried to close the program during the animation), then blit the origSurf Surface to the display Surface. Then we paint the flashSurf Surface by calling fill() (supplying the r, g, b values of the color we got on line 171 and the alpha value that the for loop sets in the alpha variable). Then the flashSurf Surface is blitted to the display Surface.

Then, to make the display Surface appear on the screen, pygame.display.update() is called on line 179. To make sure the animation doesn’t play as fast as the computer can draw it, we add short pauses with a call to the tick() method. (If you want to see the flashing animation play very slowly, put a low number like 1 or 2 as the argument to tick() instead of FPS.)

Drawing the Buttons

184. def drawButtons():
185.     pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, YELLOW, YELLOWRECT)
186.     pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, BLUE,   BLUERECT)
187.     pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, RED,    REDRECT)
188.     pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, GREEN,  GREENRECT)

Since each of the buttons is just a rectangle of a certain color in a certain place, we just make four calls to pygame.draw.rect() to draw the buttons on the display Surface. The Color object and the Rect object we use to position them never change, which is why we stored them in constant variables like YELLOW and YELLOWRECT.

Animating the Background Change

191. def changeBackgroundAnimation(animationSpeed=40):
192.     global bgColor
193.     newBgColor = (random.randint(0, 255), random.randint(0, 255),
random.randint(0, 255))
195.     newBgSurf = pygame.Surface((WINDOWWIDTH, WINDOWHEIGHT))
196.     newBgSurf = newBgSurf.convert_alpha()
197.     r, g, b = newBgColor
198.     for alpha in range(0, 255, animationSpeed): # animation loop
199.         checkForQuit()
200.         DISPLAYSURF.fill(bgColor)
202.         newBgSurf.fill((r, g, b, alpha))
203.         DISPLAYSURF.blit(newBgSurf, (0, 0))
205.         drawButtons() # redraw the buttons on top of the tint
207.         pygame.display.update()
208.         FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)
209.     bgColor = newBgColor

The background color change animation happens whenever the player finishes entering the entire pattern correctly. On each iteration through the loop which starts on line 198 the entire display Surface has to be redrawn (blended with a less and less transparent new background color, until the background is completely covered by the new color). The steps done on each iteration of the loop are:

  • Line 200 fills in the entire display Surface (stored in DISPLAYSURF) with the old background color (which is stored in bgColor).
  • Line 202 fills in a different Surface object (stored in newBgSurf) with the new background color’s RGB values (and the alpha transparency value changes on each iteration since that is what the for loop on line 198 does).
  • Line 203 then draws the newBgSurf Surface to the display Surface in DISPLAYSURF. The reason we didn’t just paint our semitransparent new background color on DISPLAYSURF to begin with is because the fill() method will just replace the color on the Surface, whereas the blit() method will blend the colors.
  • Now that we have the background the way we want it, we’ll draw the buttons over it with a call to drawButtons() on line 205.
  • Line 207 and 208 then just draws the display Surface to the screen and adds a pause.

The reason there is a global statement at the beginning of the changeBackgroundAnimation() function is for the bgColor variable is because this function modifies the content of the variable with an assignment statement on line 209. Any function can read the value of a global variable without specifying the global statement.

If that function assigns a value to a global variable without a global statement, then Python considers that variable to be a local variable that just happens to have the same name as a global variable. The main() function uses the bgColor variable but doesn’t need a global statement for it because it only reads the contents of the bgColor the main() function never assigns bgColor a new value. This concept is explained in more detail at http://invpy.com/global.

The Game Over Animation

212. def gameOverAnimation(color=WHITE, animationSpeed=50):
213.     # play all beeps at once, then flash the background
214.     origSurf = DISPLAYSURF.copy()
215.     flashSurf = pygame.Surface(DISPLAYSURF.get_size())
216.     flashSurf = flashSurf.convert_alpha()
217.     BEEP1.play() # play all four beeps at the same time, roughly.
218.     BEEP2.play()
219.     BEEP3.play()
220.     BEEP4.play()
221.     r, g, b = color
222.     for i in range(3): # do the flash 3 times

Each of the iterations of the for loop on the next line (line 223 below) will perform a flash. To have three flashes done, we put all of that code in a for loop that has three iterations. If you want more or fewer flashes, then change the integer that is passed to range() on line 222.

223.         for start, end, step in ((0, 255, 1), (255, 0, -1)):

The for loop on line 223 is exactly the same as the one line 173. The start, end and step variables will be used on the next for loop (on line 224) to control how the alpha variable changes. Reread the "Animating the Button Flash" section if you need to refresh yourself on how these loops work.

224.             # The first iteration in this loop sets the following for loop
225.             # to go from 0 to 255, the second from 255 to 0.
226.             for alpha in range(start, end, animationSpeed * step): #
animation loop
227.                 # alpha means transparency. 255 is opaque, 0 is invisible
228.                 checkForQuit()
229.                 flashSurf.fill((r, g, b, alpha))
230.                 DISPLAYSURF.blit(origSurf, (0, 0))
231.                 DISPLAYSURF.blit(flashSurf, (0, 0))
232.                 drawButtons()
233.                 pygame.display.update()
234.                 FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)

This animation loop works the same as the previous flashing animation code in the "Animating the Background Change" section. The copy of the original Surface object stored in origSurf is drawn on the display Surface, then flashSurf (which has the new flashing color painted on it) is blitted on top of the display Surface. After the background color is set up, the buttons are drawn on top on line 232. Finally the display Surface is drawn to the screen with the call to pygame.display.update().

The for loop on line 226 adjusts the alpha value for the color used for each frame of animation (increasing at first, and then decreasing).

Converting from Pixel Coordinates to Buttons

238. def getButtonClicked(x, y):
239.     if YELLOWRECT.collidepoint( (x, y) ):
240.         return YELLOW
241.     elif BLUERECT.collidepoint( (x, y) ):
242.         return BLUE
243.     elif REDRECT.collidepoint( (x, y) ):
244.         return RED
245.     elif GREENRECT.collidepoint( (x, y) ):
246.         return GREEN
247.     return None
250. if __name__ == '__main__':
251.     main()

The getButtonClicked() function simply takes XY pixel coordinates and returns either the values YELLOW, BLUE, RED or GREEN if one of the buttons was clicked, or returns None if the XY pixel coordinates are not over any of the four buttons.

Explicit is Better Than Implicit

You may have noticed that the code for getButtonClicked() ends with a return None statement on line 247. This might seem like an odd thing to type out, since all functions return None if they don’t have any return statement at all. We could have left line 47 out entirely and the program would have worked the exact same way. So why bother writing it in?

Normally when a function reaches the end and returns the None value implicitly (that is, there is no return statement outright saying that it is returning None) the code that calls it doesn’t care about the return value. All function calls have to return a value (so that they can evaluate to something and be part of expressions), but our code doesn’t always make use of the return value.

For example, think about the print() function. Technically, this function returns the None value, but we never care about it:

>>> spam = print('Hello')
>>> spam == None

However, when getButtonClicked() returns None, it means that the coordinates that were passed to it were not over any of the four buttons. To make it clear that in this case the value None is returned from getButtonClicked(), we have the return None line at the end of the function.

To make your code more readable, it is better to have your code be explicit (that is, clearly state something even if it might be obvious) rather than implicit (that is, leaving it up to the person reading code to know how it works without outright telling them). In fact, "explicit is better than implicit" is one of the Python Koans.

The koans are a group of little sayings about how to write good code. There’s an Easter egg (that is, a little hidden surprise) in the Python interactive shell where if you try to import a module named this, then it will display "The Zen of Python" koans. Try it out in the interactive shell:

>>> import this
The Zen of Python, by Tim Peters

Beautiful is better than ugly.
Explicit is better than implicit.
Simple is better than complex.
Complex is better than complicated.
Flat is better than nested.
Sparse is better than dense.
Readability counts.
Special cases aren't special enough to break the rules.
Although practicality beats purity.
Errors should never pass silently.
Unless explicitly silenced.
In the face of ambiguity, refuse the temptation to guess.
There should be one-- and preferably only one --obvious way to do it
Although that way may not be obvious at first unless you're Dutch.
Now is better than never.
Although never is often better than *right* now.
If the implementation is hard to explain, it's a bad idea.
If the implementation is easy to explain, it may be a good idea.
Namespaces are one honking great idea -- let's do more of those!

If you’d like to know more about what these individual koans mean, visit http://invpy.com/zen.

< Лекция 4 || Лекция 5: 12 || Лекция 6 >
Игорь Хан
Игорь Хан
Узбекистан, Ташкент, Ташкентский педагогический институт иностранных языков, 1990